Sunday, February 14, 2010

ISLAM AND SCIENCE

LIST OF SUBJECTS, THINKERS AND SCIENTISTS FROM 700 AD - 1400 AD

1. The first word of the Quran was the command 'to read'. Had the command 'to read' appeared as the last word of the Quran then Muslims of the world cannot be blamed if they read only the Quran. Since the command 'to read' appeared at the beginning of the Quran, and as the Quran took over twenty years before it was completely revealed Muslims had correctly interpreted the command 'to read' as a directive for Muslims to search for knowledge. The earlier Hadith ' learn, even if it is from China' is certainly in line with this first command 'to read'.

2. An International Islamic University student once asked me, after my speech, as to what could specifically be learnt from China at the time of this Hadith on China. As I am not an Ulama I could only say that about ten years before our beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. became Rasulullah there were three great achievements in China. China produced the best silk in the world, it had the longest bridge across the Yang Tze river and it had discovered the printing press ( from The Chinese Science Encyclopaedia ). Chinese traders could be seen reading printed books in the bazaars that they travelled to, along the Silk Route. Syria, or Sham, which our beloved prophet travelled to as a trader, was along the Silk Route. Out beloved Prophet, being observant, would not have missed seeing the Chinese in the bazaars reading printed books. And learning from China on how to print books would certaingly help in expediting the growth of the reading or 'iqra'' culture among the Muslims. Wallahu a'lam.

3. I am quite aware that this Hadith on learning from China is considered by a majority of Ulama as a weak Hadith. I am, however, on the side of the minority, and I find no reason to reject this wisdom.

4. As a result of reading all available quality books in the various languages, including Greek and Latin, the Muslim world had on record the following thinkers and scientists between 700 AD to 1400 AD. The West had to learn Arabic to regain this knowledge when they came out of the Dark Ages:

Number of scientists and thinkers:  24

Number of subjects specialized:     32

Anatomy:     ( 2 )         

Thabit Ibn Qura ( Thebit ) 836 - 901 AD
Ibn al - Nafis   1213 - 1288 AD

Astronomy: ( 9 )           

Musa al - Khawarizmi ( Algorizm ) 770 - 840 AD
Thabit Ibn Qurra ( Thebit ) 836 - 901 AD
Al Farghani ( Al - Faraganus ) 860 - ???
Zakariya al - Razi ( Rhazes ) 864 - 930 AD
Abu Abdullah al - Battani ( Albategnius ) 868 - 929 AD
Muhammad al - Buzjani 940 -997
Abu Raihan al - Biruni 973 - 1048 AD ( He determined the earth's circumference )
Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) 980 - 1037 AD
Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) 1128 - 1198 AD

Botany: ( 1 )            

Ibn Al - Baitar ( died 1248 )

Calligraphy: ( 1 )           

Ali Ibn Rabban al - Tabari 838 - 870 AD

Chemistry: ( 2)              

Jabar Ibn Haiyan ( Geber ) ( died 893 AD ) - Father of Chemistry
zakariya al - Razi ( Rhazes ) 864 - 930 AD

Civil Engineering: ( 1 )   

Al Farghani ( Al - Faragnus ) 860 - ??? AD

Ethics: ( 1 )                   

Abu al - Hasan al - Mawardi ( Alboacen ) 972 - 1058 AD

Geography: ( 3 )            

Musa al - Khawarizmi ( Algorizm ) 770 - 840 AD
Abul Hasan Ali al - Masu'di ( died 957 AD )
Al - Idrisi ( Dreses ) ( 1099 - 1166 AD ) - World Map, First Globa

Geometry: ( 2 )              

Thabit Ibn Qurra ( Thebit ) 836 - 901 AD
Muhammad al - Buzjani 940 - 997 AD

History: ( 1 )                  

Abu Hasan Ali al - Masu'di ( died 957 AD )

Jurisprudence: ( 1 )   

Abu al - Hasan al - Mawardi ( Alboacen ) 972 - 1058 AD

Law: ( 1 )                       

Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) 1128 - 1198 AD

Literature: ( 1 )         

Ali Ibn Rabban al - Tabari 838 - 870 AD

Logic: ( 1 )               

Abu al - Nasr al - Farabi ( Alpharabius ) 870 - 950 AD

Mathematics: ( 9 )          

Musa al - Khawarizmi ( Algorithm, Algebra & Calculus ) 770 - 840 AD
Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al - Kindi ( Alkindus ) 800 - 873 AD
Ali Ibn Rabban al - Tabari 838 - 870 AD
Abu Abdullah al - Battani ( Albategnius ) 868 - 929 AD
Muhammad al - Buzjani 940 - 997 AD
Hasan Ibn al - Haitham ( Alhazen ) 965 - 1040 AD
Abu Raiham al - Biruni 973 - 1048 AD
Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) 980 - 1037 AD
Omar al - Khayyam 1044 - 1123 AD

Mechanics: ( 1 )             

Thabit Ibn Qurra ( Thebit ) 836 - 901 AD

Medicine: ( 6 )               

Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al - Kindi ( Alkindus ) 800 - 873 AD
Ali Ibn Rabban al - Tabari 838 - 870 AD
Zakariya al - Razi ( Rhazes ) 864 - 930 AD
Abu al - Qasim al - Zahrawi ( Albucasis ) 936 - 1013 AD
Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) 980 - 1037 AD
Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) 1128 - 1198 AD

Metallurgy: ( 1 )              

Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al - Kindi ( Alkindus ) 800 - 873 AD
                                       
Music: ( 1 )                     

Abu al - Nasr al - Farabi ( Al - Pharabius ) 870 -950 AD

Ophthalmology: ( 1 )  

Zakariya al - Razi ( Rhazes ) 864 - 930 AD

Optics: ( 2 )                    

Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al - Kindi ( Alkindus ) 800 - 873 AD
Hasan Ibn al - Haitham ( Alhazen ) 965 - 1040 AD

Pharmacy: ( 1 )                

Ibn al - Baitar ( died 1248 AD )

Philosophy: ( 5 )              

Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al - Kindi ( Alkindus ) 800 - 873 AD
Abu al - Nasr al - Fababi ( Al - Pharabius ) 870 - 950 AD
Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) 980 - 1037 AD
Abu Hamid al - Ghazali ( Algazel ) 1058 - 1128 AD
Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) 1128 - 1198 AD

Philosophy of History: ( 1 )     

Ibn Khaldun 1332 - 1395 AD

Physics: ( 2 )               

Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al - Kindi ( Alkindus ) 800 - 873 AD
Hasan Ibn al - Haitham ( Alhazen ) 965 - 1040 AD

Poetry: ( 1 )                 

Omar al - Khayyam 1044 - 1123 AD

Political Science: ( 3 )        

Abu al - Nasr al - Farabi ( Al - Pharabius ) 870 - 950 AD
Abu al - Hasan al - Mawardi ( Alboacen ) 972 - 1058 AD
Ibn Khaldun 1332 - 1395 AD

Smallpox: ( 1 )              

Zakariya al - Razi ( Rhazes ) 864 - 930 AD

Sociology: ( 5 )             

Abu al - Nasr al - Farabi ( Al - Pharabius ) 870 - 950 AD
Abu al - Hasan al - Mawardi ( Alboacen ) 972 - 1058 AD
Abu Hamid al - Ghazali ( Algazel ) 1058 - 1128 AD
Jalal al - Din Rumi 1207 - 1273 AD
Ibn Khaldun 1332 - 1395 AD

Surgery: ( 1 )                

Abu al - Qasim al - Zahrawi ( Albucasis ) 936 - 1013 AD ( Father of Modern Surgery )

Theology: ( 2 )              

Abu Hamid al - Ghazali ( Algazel ) 1058 - 1128 AD
Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) 1128 - 1198 AD

Trigonometry: ( 2 )        

Abu Abdullah al - Battani ( Albategnius ) 868 - 929 AD
Muhammad al - Buzjani 940 - 997 AD

8 comments:

al-Deen-amin said...

Al-Fadil ibn Marwan (784-864) - Vizier of Al-Motassim, a Christian who embraced Islam. He said:

"If you must compare a Khatib (scribe) to anything, compare him to a wheel for raising water from a well. He must be constantly kept at work. Otherwise he will cease to function properly."

"Do not attack your enemy when he is advancing. That would be folly; for when he is advancing, he has an advantage over you."

Najm al-Din al-Kubra (-1221)- religous scholar, a poet, writer and orator at al-Khwarizm. When Genghis Khan laid seige and to raze the city of Khwarizm, he sent a message to the the Najm to join him.

He sent back the following message, "If I were to leave my people at this hour of their tragedy, it would be an act remote from virtue and magnanimity."

The Najm's body was found among the slain.

Shamsul Yunos said...

Malaysian MP tells Australia to join the human race before criticising others

read this EXCLUSIVE HERE

http://marahku.blogspot.com/2010/02/malaysian-mp-australia-should-join.html

mohd ali ismail said...

Quran teaches us to be devine but sadly 99% of the so called muslims do the opposite.

Dr Syed Iskandar Syed Jaafar Al Mahdzar said...

Assalamualaikum wbt Yg Bhg Tan Sri,

Tonight is 1st Rabiul Awal 1431 Hijrah, 914pm, Monday (15/2/2010).
Your good friend & former boss Yg Bhg Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad has touched the same subject in his blog on 23 Safar 1431 Hijrah
(8/2/2010)

Few years ago, I was there in the CAC , IIUM Gombak when you delivered your speech full of genuine and sincere praises for Yg Bhg Tun Dr Mahathir when Tun Dr M visited IIUM and from there those in CAC can safely conclude that both of you must be a very good friend la Tan Sri what more when both of you also decided to leave the party simultenously back then.


Thus, both of the blog i.e. yours and Yg Bhg Tun Dr M are inter-related on this subject of Islam & Science and I have approached the subject focusing on OIC since Yg Bhg Tun Dr M mentioned about OIC in para 1 on the same subject in his blog.

Thus if Yg Bhg Tan Sri has some time to spare, Tan Sri can find my brief comments on the same subject at Yg Bhg Tun Dr Mahathir blog at

chedet.co.cc (under Yg Bhg Tun Dr M posting Science and Islam-my comments dated 24 Safar 1431 Hijrah (9/2/2010) )


This time bro Jokiden, I think I will be a bit short la ok.

Salam Solat Isya to Yg Bhg Tan Sri & family & Gong Xi Fa Cai

1st Rabiul Awal 1431 Hijrah, 929pm
(15/2/2010)
drsyediskandarislamicbankingfinance.blogspot.com or
isikcorpadv@gmail.com

TheLastKingofScotland said...

A very well justified theory indeed, linking the hadith about China to the first message of the Quran.

Also an interesting list of subjects. Makes me wonder why astronomy was one of the most popular subjects back then.

Please keep on writing! :)

Anisah UK said...

Its ashame how most Malaysians, younger generations in particular, prefers "hanging out" around KLCC water fountain or going to karaoke to reading as their past time.

The government or even NGOs should start their campaign on 'semangat membaca' and target children as young as kindergarten/primary school children.

We need more scholars to add to the above thinkers and scientists list.

Ramli Mohd Yunus said...

Dear Tan Sri,

I could not agree more. Iqraq is the first verse but alas our UMNO/BN leaders find it irrelevance because they are in the comfort zone and cruising comfortably in the corridoors of power!

There cases where EXCO members read newspapers after midnight.
Books and magazines are alien to them.

glassman said...

Salam Tan Sri,

Pertama kali masuk ke sini secara tak sengaja. Betul, membaca atau baca ialah perkataan pertama di turunkan. Sayangnya tak ramai yang suka membaca, apalagi membaca dalam bahasa selain Bahasa Malaysia. Mahu nya pula kerja2 "mengajak" orang membaca pun dah kurang, lebih politik sahaja..